Types and features of sarcoma

Sarcoma is a type of cancer that affects soft tissue and bone. Depending on where the tumor grows, there are various types and clinical symptoms.

There are many types of sarcomas. Therefore, it is a diverse pathology that manifests itself in different ways. Sometimes it appears as a lump under the skin, and it can manifest as bone pain or a feeling of fullness in the abdomen. Among other symptoms of sarcoma, there may be weight loss.

According to the American Cancer Society , a sarcoma is an oncological mutation that invades bone and muscle by growing in soft and bone tissue, from fat to nerves.

Sarcomas do not occur often. In fact , according to various studies , osteosarcoma (bone tumor) accounts for only about 0.2% of all malignant cancers. In other words, it affects about 3 out of 1 million people each year.

about cancer

You cannot learn about sarcoma without knowing basic information about cancer. This disease is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells in parts of the body that cause tumors. It spreads to other parts of the body due to a process commonly known as metastasis .

The Society for Medical Oncology reported the latest data on the global cancer situation:

  • In 2018, more than 18 million cancer cases were found worldwide, 11.6% of which were due to malignant processes in the lungs.
  • Cervical cancer had the lowest diagnosis rate at 2.1%, but cancer cases with less common causes (not considered the only type) were found at 24.6%.
  • A total of 277,234 cancer cases were diagnosed in 2019.
  • With an estimated 30 million people will develop malignant tumors by 2040 (a 63% increase from 2018), the number of patients worldwide is increasing each year.

As you can see, the numbers are alarming. Therefore, to be able to treat more people around the world, it is important to become familiar with each type, regardless of how rare it is.

Types and features of sarcoma

The fight against cancer includes sarcoma. This disease is difficult to prevent, but can be diagnosed with early detection campaigns.

type of sarcoma

As mentioned earlier, all types of sarcomas are malignant tumors originating from bone and soft tissue. Statistics show that  it accounts for 20% of cancers found in pediatric settings and less than 1% in adults.

The predisposition to breeding depends on genetic and environmental factors and the interaction between the two. However, the specific cause has not been identified. According to a paper published in <ScienceDirect>, a science portal site in 2007, there are various types of breeding. Read on to find out which types exist.

The most common type of sarcoma, liposarcoma

It is the most common subtype and accounts for 20% of sarcoma cases in the United States. Liposarcoma can occur in fat cells anywhere in the body. However, most often it appears in the adipose tissue of the limbs or abdomen.

If the sarcoma appears on a limb, it is noticeable because the lump under the skin is enlarged and the affected limb is weak and painful. However, abdominal tumors can manifest as constipation, bloating, and pain, among other symptoms.

In most cases, tumor removal and radiation therapy are required . There are several types of liposarcoma depending on their appearance . However, it usually does not cause metastasis and can only be resolved surgically.

leiomyosarcoma

According to the <sarcormahelp.org> association , leiomyosarcoma is a cancer that usually originates from smooth muscle cells in the tissues of the uterus or stomach. Leiomyosarcoma accounts for 5-10% of cases, making it one of the most common types of all soft tissue sarcomas.

Although there are no specific characteristics for diagnosing leiomyosarcoma, the aforementioned sources report that it will occur more frequently after 50 to 60 years. It also primarily affects women. According to various studies , gemcitabine treatment is effective in more than 50% of patients.

synovial sarcoma

Synovial sarcoma is an uncommon type. It commonly occurs in the joints of young adults and especially around the knee joints . The main feature is a slow-growing, deep hump that can be tender or painful to the touch.

Studies have shown that this type of cancer is related to chromosomal mutations. In other words, there is a large genetic component. As with liposarcoma, surgical removal is the best option.

Types and features of sarcoma

Osteosarcoma and synovial sarcoma are malignant tumors of the bone that appear near the knee.

Different types of sarcoma

So far, we have discussed the three most important types. But there are other types that should be mentioned. Some of them are:

  • Angiosarcoma that develops in the lining of blood or lymphatic vessels
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma produces pinkish nodules under the skin or, less commonly, in the oral mucosa. It often appears in people with weakened immune systems, such as AIDS patients.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of skeletal muscle. In fact , it is the most common type that occurs in childhood . It also occurs in 4 out of 1 million healthy children.
  • Osteosarcoma, as the name suggests, is bone cancer.

As you can see, there are as many types of sarcoma as there are human tissues, and the list is extensive. The main concept that must not be forgotten is that we are facing a malignancy that varies with location.

Notes on Different Types of Breeding

Sarcomas occur in both hard and soft tissues. So , depending on where the tumor grows, there are several types that show specific symptoms.

As with all other cancers, early detection is key to patient survival . Therefore, if you have any doubts or unexplained pain, you should consult your doctor immediately.

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