Symptoms, causes, and diagnosis of asthma

Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the respiratory system. It is the constriction of the air passages when stimulated by the internal and exogenous environment. The narrowing of the bronchi reduces the amount of air flowing into the lungs.

The causes of asthma are very complex. It may be associated with irritation, inflammation, intermittent obstruction and hyperactive bronchi or increased contractile response of the respiratory tract. Many people with asthma experience mild or sporadic symptoms. However, some tend to develop more serious complications known as “asthma attacks.”

In this case, the discomfort is more and lasts longer, and  breathing becomes more difficult. 

Who Does Asthma Affect?

Symptoms, causes, and diagnosis of asthma

According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), 235 million people suffer from asthma. This corresponds to 5% of the world’s population.

It is important to point out that 80% of asthma-related deaths occur in countries with low health care indices,  regardless of the country’s level of development .

Asthmatics are in every country and people of all ages can get asthma, but children are more likely to get it. In young children, asthma is usually caused by allergies.

causes of asthma

The cause of asthma is still not clear. However, it does not cause etiology (genetic factors) or disease, but it can be caused by some problem in the patient.

etiological factors

  • Genetic factors: a family history of allergies that cause asthma or shortness of breath
  • Exposure to Allergens : Substances that cause allergic and respiratory symptoms . The most important ones are:
    • Microscopic fungi (pollination products)
    • Cattle scales, fur, dander
    • fabric (like wool)
    • smoking
    • sawdust
    • mite
    • dust
    • environmental pollution

Environmental causes of asthma


The causes of asthma symptoms are usually related to the environment. For example:

  • viral infection
  • cigarette smoke
  • Celiac disease or gluten intolerance 
  • environmental pollutants or poor air quality 
  • Sudden climate change (such as getting too cold, humid, or snowing)
  • Long-term use of certain antibiotics and medications 

asthma symptoms

Symptoms can be mild or chronic. Depends on the patient. It depends on the individual’s immunity. Depending on the type of asthma and how severe it is, you will usually experience the following symptoms:

  • Cough : Coughing up with sputum or dry coughing
  • Shortness of breath: A symptom that occurs when exercising or exercising. In severe cases, breathing may be difficult when talking or at rest
  • A whistling sound in the chest:  This sound is caused by the flow of air through the narrow airways. You can hear better with a stethoscope.

Other symptoms that may appear include:

  • Fatigue 
  • sore throat and sore throat 
  • pressure in the chest 
  • Irregular breathing  (slower or faster than usual)
  • Nasal congestion (mucus thickens or becomes difficult to remove) and sneezing
  • Difficulty breathing (really serious symptoms) makes it difficult to walk or talk 

diagnosis of asthma


Diagnosis is made by examining medical history, family history, and other potential causes and risk factors. If you have been diagnosed with asthma, look for any previous symptoms.

Since it is often related to allergies , if you have rhinitis or eczema, you may suspect asthma. Doctors also diagnose asthma with the following tests:

  • allergy test
  • blood test
  • lung function test
  • chest and sinus x-rays
  • arterial blood gases (when an asthma attack is severe) 


Unfortunately, asthma is not a disease that can be cured. However, there are treatments that can help relieve symptoms. The goal of treatment is to reduce the severity or recurrence of symptoms.

purpose of treatment

  • Preventing and alleviating chronic symptoms such as coughing or shortness of breath
  • Maintaining proper lung function
  • Reduce the need for emergency medications to relieve symptoms
  • Prevention of chronic asthma outbreaks

treatment method

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs: The most commonly prescribed medications are corticosteroids (beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone).
  • Bronchodilators: beta2 agonists (sanbutamol tablets, terbutaline, salmeterol, formeterol, anticholinergics (iprorapium bromide), methylxanthines
  • Antihistamines:  These do not cure the disease, but are effective in relieving allergy symptoms.

It is important to follow the following precautions.

  • Take your medicine at the time you need to take it, according to the prescription
  • Get emergency medical attention if needed
  • Knowing how your disease state is changing
  • avoid environmental contaminants
  • Knowing how to take care of yourself when exercising

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